A stem cell line is a group of identical stem cells that can be grown and nurtured in a lab dish. A line originates from a single cell or group of cells, and all resulting cells in the line are replicates of the original cells. Researchers working with these lines can grow large volumes of cells. Jun 08, · A stem cell line is a group of cells that all descend from a single original stem cell and are grown in a lab. Cells in a stem cell line keep growing but don't differentiate into specialized cells. Ideally, they remain free of genetic defects and continue to create more stem cells.
Stem cellan undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate become specialized.
Stem cells are an ongoing source of the differentiated cells that make up the tissues and organs of animals and plants.
There is great interest in stem cells because they have potential in the development of therapies for replacing defective or damaged cells resulting from a variety of disorders and injuries, such as Parkinson disease what is stem cell line, heart diseaseand diabetes.
There are two major types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, which are also called tissue stem cells. Embryonic stem cells often referred to as ES how to make a pita bread are stem cells that are derived from the inner cell mass of a mammalian embryo at a very early stage of development, when it is composed of a hollow sphere of dividing cells a blastocyst.
Embryonic stem cells from human embryos and from embryos of certain other mammalian species can be grown in tissue culture. The what is stem cell line embryonic stem cells are mouse embryonic stem cells, which were first reported in This type of stem cell can be cultured indefinitely in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor LIFa glycoprotein cytokine.
If cultured mouse embryonic stem cells are injected into an early mouse embryo at the blastocyst stage, they will become integrated into the embryo and produce cells that differentiate into most or all of the tissue types that subsequently develop. This ability to repopulate mouse embryos is the key defining feature of embryonic stem cells, and because of it they are considered to be pluripotent —that is, able to give rise to any cell type of the adult organism. If embryonic stem cells are grafted into an adult mouse, they will develop into a type of tumour called a teratomawhich contains a variety of differentiated tissue types.
Mouse embryonic stem cells are widely used to create genetically modified mice. This is done by introducing new genes into embryonic stem cells in tissue culture, selecting the particular genetic variant that is desired, and then inserting the genetically modified cells into mouse embryos.
As long as some of the chimeric mice have germ cells sperm or eggs that have been derived from the embryonic stem cells, it is possible to breed a line of mice that have the same genetic constitution as the embryonic stem cells and therefore incorporate the genetic modification that was made in vitro.
This method has been used to produce thousands of new genetic lines of mice. In many such genetic lines, individual genes have been ablated in order to study their biological function; in others, genes have been introduced that have the same mutations that are found in various human genetic diseases. Extensive experience with mouse embryonic stem cells made it possible for scientists to grow human embryonic stem cells from early human embryos, and the first human stem cell line was created in Human embryonic stem cells are in many respects similar to mouse embryonic stem cells, but they do not require LIF for their maintenance.
The human embryonic stem cells form a wide variety of differentiated tissues in vitro, and they form teratomas when grafted into immunosuppressed mice.
Large quantities of cells, such as dopamine -secreting neurons for the treatment of Parkinson disease and insulin -secreting pancreatic beta cells for the treatment of diabetescould be produced from embryonic stem cells for cell transplantation. Cells for this purpose have previously been obtainable only from sources in very limited supply, such as the pancreatic beta cells obtained from the cadavers of human organ donors.
The use of human embryonic stem cells evokes ethical what causes rotavirus in adults, because the blastocyst -stage embryos are destroyed in the process of obtaining the how to install electric dryer cells.
The embryos from which stem cells have been obtained are produced through in vitro fertilizationand people who consider preimplantation human embryos to be human beings generally believe that such work is morally wrong.
Others accept it because they regard the blastocysts to be simply balls of cells, what is stem cell line human cells used in laboratories have not previously been accorded any special moral or legal status. Moreover, it is known that none of the cells of the inner cell mass are exclusively destined to become part of the embryo itself—all of the cells contribute some or all of their cell offspring what is stem cell line the placentawhich also has not been accorded any special legal status.
The divergence of views on this issue is illustrated by the fact that the use of human embryonic stem cells is allowed in some countries and prohibited in others. In the U. The therapy to be tested was known as GRNOPC1, which consisted of progenitor cells partially differentiated cells that, once inside the body, matured into neural cells known as oligodendrocytes.
The how to hook up live was designed for the restoration of nerve function in persons suffering from acute spinal cord what is stem cell line. Embryonic germ EG cells, derived from primordial germ cells found in the gonadal ridge of a late embryo, have many of the properties of embryonic stem cells. The primordial germ cells in an embryo develop into stem cells that in an adult generate the reproductive gametes how to interpretation of data or eggs.
In mice and humans it is possible to grow embryonic germ cells in tissue culture with the appropriate growth factors—namely, LIF and another cytokine called fibroblast growth factor. Stem cell Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents.
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Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Jonathan M. Author of From Egg to Embryo. Neural and hematopoietic stem cells have tremendous potential in the development of therapies for certain diseases, such as diabetes and Parkinson disease.
Neural stem cells occur in the spinal cord and in specific regions of the brain, and hematopoietic stem cells occur in the blood and bone marrow.
Embryonic stem cells differentiating into neurons. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
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In order to get embryonic stem cell lines, scientists remove cells from the inner cell mass region. These cells have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the body. Once the cells are removed, they are placed on a culture plate with nutrients and growth factors. The blastocyst is . Oct 19, · Stem cells that are dividing and reproducing in a controlled culture are called a stem-cell line. Researchers manage and share stem-cell . Mar 29, · Stem cell, an undifferentiated cell that can divide to produce some offspring cells that continue as stem cells and some cells that are destined to differentiate (become specialized). Stem cells are an ongoing source of the differentiated cells that make up the tissues and organs of animals and plants.
Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. For more information on how techniques similar to this are used in research, visit DNA from the Beginning and explore Concept DNA is only the beginning for understanding the human genome. Embryonic stem cells are derived from blastocysts — embryos that are about a week old. At this stage, the blastocyst has about cells.
Human blastocysts like this have been donated to research from in vitro fertilization clinics. In order to get embryonic stem cell lines, scientists remove cells from the inner cell mass region. These cells have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the body. Once the cells are removed, they are placed on a culture plate with nutrients and growth factors.
The blastocyst is destroyed in this process. An embryonic cell line is established when these cells multiply and divide. Under the right conditions, these cell lines can be maintained indefinitely. By adding different growth factors, it is possible to induce these embryonic stem cells into developing into different cell types. These cells could someday be used in therapies to replace damaged cells and organs. Mario Capecchi talks about manipulating embryonic stem ES cells to make specific mutations in mouse embryos.
Professor David Anderson describes the types and properties of different stem cells. The most well known, embryonic stem cells, are the most flexible. Professor Fred Gage defines the key features of stem cells, which include self-renewal and the ability to give rise to another cell.
Mario Capecchi describes proteomics; the large-scale study of protein structure and function. Brian Sauer explains gene knock outs. This method uses homologous recombination to disable a gene of interest to produce a genetic knockout. Mario Capecchi talks about the possible use of embryonic stem cells and gene targeting techniques to develop new therapies for for diabetes and Parkinson's.
Professor Ronald McKay discusses how he identified stem cells, and how they can explain the fundamental molecular processes of the nervous system. Description Transcript Keywords Info Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. Related Content. Gene targeting, Mario Capecchi Mario Capecchi talks about manipulating embryonic stem ES cells to make specific mutations in mouse embryos. ID: Source: G2C.
Stem Cells - a Definition Professor Fred Gage defines the key features of stem cells, which include self-renewal and the ability to give rise to another cell. Animation DNA is only the beginning for understanding the human genome. Gene knockout in mice This method uses homologous recombination to disable a gene of interest to produce a genetic knockout. Problem DNA is only the beginning for understanding the human genome. Experiment with gene knock outs. Promises of gene therapy, Mario Capecchi Mario Capecchi talks about the possible use of embryonic stem cells and gene targeting techniques to develop new therapies for for diabetes and Parkinson's.